Constitution Of India
Constitution is main law of a country which reflects the basic principles on which the government of that country works. It lays down the main framework and Principal functions of various bodies of Government. It also defines the procedure by which various organs of the government interact with each other. It also defines the rules by which government interacts with the common citizens. With the exception of UK all democratic countries have their written Constitution. The Indian Republic is governed in terms of the Constitution of India which was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 26th November, 1949 and came into force on 26th January, 1950. The constitutional head of the Country is President.
Some Key features about Constituent Assembly
- Constitution of India was framed by Constituent Assembly which consisted of 389 members, out of which 292 were from Provinces, 93 from Princely states, 3 from Chief Commissioner Provinces and 1 from Baluchistan.
- Constituent assembly held its first meeting on Dec 9, 1946 and elected Dr Sachhidanand Sinha, the oldest member of assembly as the Provisional President.
- On Dec 11, 1946 the assembly elected Dr Rajendra Prasad as its Chairman. Strength of the assembly was reduced to 299 (229 representing Provinces and 70 representing Princely States) following withdrawal of Muslim League Members after participation of country.
- The Constituent Assembly set up 13 committees for framing the constitution. On the basis of reports of these committees, a draft of the constitution was prepared by a seven member Drafting Committee under the Chairmanship of Dr B R Ambedkar.
- The draft constitution was published in Jan 1948 and people were given 8 months to discuss the draft and propose amendments.
- After discussions and suggestions received the same was finally adopted on Nov 26, 1949. Though the major part of constitution came into affect on Jan 26, 1950, Provisions related to Election, Citizenship, Provisional Parliament etc came into effect on Nov 26, 1949.
The government of India Act, 1935 exercised great influence on the Indian Constitution. The federal scheme, office of governor, powers of federal judiciary etc were drawn from this act. The constitution of India was not an original but all the good ideas from the Constitutions of other Western Countries were adopted in it. The effects of Constitutions of other countries are enlisted as follows –
- The Parliamentary system of government, rule of law, law making procedure and single citizenship was taken from British Constitution.
- Independence of Judiciary, Judicial review, Fundamental Rights and guidelines for removal of Judges were taken from US Constitution.
- The federal system, with strong central authority was adopted from Canada.