Interesting Facts about Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Andaman and Nicobar islands is one of the seven Union Territory of India. It is a group of 572 Islands in Bay of Bengal. This article is all about historical, geographical, social, religious, cultural, amazing, rare, unknown interesting facts about Andaman and Nicobar Islands Union Territory.
Quick Basic Facts about Andaman and Nicobar Islands Union Territory
- Capital – Port Blair
- Official language – Bengali, Hindi, English
- Main spoken languages – Telugu, Nicobarese, Bengali, Tamil, Malyalam, Hindi and local dialects.
- Area – 8073 Sq Km
- Area Rank – 1st (among all Union Territories)
- Population – 3,80,500 as per 2011 census
- Population rank – 4th (among all UTs)
- Population density – 47 per Sq Km
- Sex Ratio – 878
- Literacy – 86.2 %
- Literacy Rank – 6th (among all UTs)
- No. of districts – 03
- Legislature – None
- No. of Lok Sabha seats – 01
- No. of Rajya Sabha seats – Nil
- Established on – 1 Nov, 1956
- First Chief Commissioner – Inamul Majid
- Highest Peak – Saddle peak, North Andaman island; height 732 mt
Historical Facts about Andaman and Nicobar Islands
- First European to establish their colony here were Danish who reached Nicobar in 1755.
- British arrived in Chantham island in 1789 and built there colony and naval military base.
- Danish colonial rule in this region was ended as they sold their rights to British in 1868. As a result complete control of all north and south islands thus transferred in the hands of British.
- During colonial period of Both Danish and British, most of the islands were evacuated several times due to outbreak of Malaria.
- During second World War most of the islands were virtually under the control of Japanese Naval Forces.
- Subhash Chandra Bose strengthened the position and status of Azad Hind Fauz during with the support of Japanese Forces at the time of second World War. Subhash Chandra Bose renamed the north and south islands as Shaheed Dweep and Swaraj dweep respectively.
Geographical Facts about Andaman and Nicobar Islands
- These groups of islands are located in Bay of Bengal. The capital Port Blair lies about 1252 Km south of Kolkata, West Bengal.
- There are two groups of islands – Andaman and Nicobar. While the Andaman groups of islands are in north, the groups of Nicobar islands is in south.
- Andaman group of islands are separated from Nicobar group by about 150 km wide sea gap. 10th parallel is considered to separate these two groups of islands.
- There are total 572 islands which are together called as Andaman and Nicobar islands. The Andaman groups comprises of 325 islands while Nicobar group consists of 24 islands.
- Out of total 572, only 34 islands are inhabited.
- High Court of Calcutta in Kolkata serves as the judiciary of this Union Territory. There is one additional Bench of Calcutta High Court at Port Blair.
- The southernmost point of Andaman and Nicobar Union territory which is also the southernmost point of India is called Indira Point. Indira Point which is located on Great Nicobar island is just 150 Km away from Sumatra island of Indonesia.
- The earlier name of Indira point was Pygmalion Point (or Parsons Point).
- India’s only Tri-Service command of Indian Armed Forces is located in Port Blair. It consists of 2 Naval bases containing total 15 number of war ships and patrolling vessels combined. There are 4 Air force bases and one Indian Army base. These islands are crucial and are of strategic importance for controlling India’s position and interest in South Asia.
- There is more than 92 % of forest cover which makes it the first among all states and Union territories in terms of Forest area percentage.
- Havelock island is one of the most beautiful island on which elephants are used for recursion and developing tourism.
- Mahatma Gandhi Marine National Park is one of the national park of India which is located on Andaman islands. This park came to existence in year 1983 for the intention of protection and conservation of marine life like sea turtles, coral reefs etc. This marine national park is sprawled over 15 islands.
Social and Cultural Facts about Andaman and Nicobar Islands
- North Sentinel island is one of the many islands that make up the Andamans. It has never been touched by modern civilisation. The indigenous Sentinelese people continue to live in entirely primitive manner as they live in their own and have no contacts from the outside world.
- There were four main Negrito Tribes which were inhabited in Andamans until the colonisation period of India – Great Andamanese, Onge, Jarawa and Sentinalese. Besides these there are two Mongoloid Tribes also present – Nicobarese and Shompens which belong to Nicobar group of islands.
- Except the original tribes, most of the population of Andaman and Nicobar is made up from the descendants of deported people during British colonial era.
- Bengali community is the dominating among all other socio-ethnic groups. About 70 % of inhabitants belong to Bengali community.
- There is no post of Administrators like other Union Territories. The supreme government body is Lieutenant Governor.
- Earlier the supreme governing body of this Union territory was Chief Commissioner from independence of India till 1982. From 1982 onwards governing body was replaced from Chief Commissioner to Lieutenant Governor. First Lieutenant governor of this UT in 1982 was Manohar L Kampani.
- Cellular jail was used to imprison freedom fighters and other political activists by British government during colonial period. It was also known as Kala Pani earlier. The construction started in 1896 and completed in 1905.
Economic Facts about Andaman and Nicobar Islands
- Agricultural Products of Andaman and Nicobar islands – Rice, coconut, arecanut, sugarcane, pulses, fruit and vegetables.
- Fishing, Tourism and Boat repairing works are main employment generating sectors and also adding greatly to economy of this UT.
- Main tourist spots are Anthropological Museum, Marine Museum, Mount Harriet, Chidiya Tapu, Wandoor Beach, Viper island, Cellular Jail, Dilthaman Tank.
- Main beaches are – Corbyn Cove, Radha Nagar, Cutbert Bay, Karmatang, Ross and Smith and Wandoor beach.