Interesting Facts about Assam
This article is all about historical, geographical, social, religious, cultural, amazing, rare, unknown interesting facts about Assam.
Quick Basic Facts about Assam
- Capital – Dispur
- Official Language – Assamese, English, Bengali, Bodo
- Area – 79,000 Sq Km
- Area Rank – 16th
- Population – 3,11,69,272
- Population Rank – 14th
- Population density – 397/sq km
- Sex Ratio – 958 females per 1000 male
- Literacy Rate – 72.19 % (as per 2011 census)
- Literacy Rank – 19th
- No. of Districts – 27
- Assembly Seats – 126 (Unicameral)
- Lok Sabha Seats – 14
- Rajya Sabha Seats – 7
- Established – 15 Aug 1947 – Free India (1912 – Assam Province in British India)
- First Chief Minister – Gopinath Bordoloi
- First Governor – Muhammad Saleh Akbar Hydari
- Highest Peak – Unnamed Peak
State Symbols of Assam
- State Tree – Hollong (Dipterocarpus Macrocarpus)
- State Flower – Foxtail Orchid (Rhynchostylis Retusa)
- State Animal – One horned Rhinoceros
- State Bird – White-winged wood duck
- State River – Brahmaputra
- State Dance – Bihu
Historical Facts about Assam
- During the medieval period the Ahom dynasty ruled the Upper Assam for about 600 years from 13th century to starting of 19th century.
- The Sutiya rulers ruled the northern banks of Brahmaputra up to present Arunachal Pradesh from late 12th century to late 17th century.
- One more kingdom “Koch” which has Tibeto-Burmese ethnicity ruled the western part of Assam along with present north Bengal.
- Despite many attempts by the Muslim invaders and especially Mughals, no one were never successful in gaining control of Assam throughout the Medieval period until British annexed the state in 18th century.
- Although Guwahati is the biggest city of Assam, Dispur which is a very smaller locality of Kamrup Metropolitan district is the capital of Assam. Both Guwahati and Dispur are located in Kamrup Metro district.
- The earlier capital of Assam before 1973 was Shillong. In 1973 after formation of Separate Meghalaya state Shillong became capital of Meghalaya.
- This state has been reduced to one third of its original size in previous 30 years. NEFA (now Arunachal Pradesh) was carved out in 1948. In 1968 Nagaland was carved out as separate state. In 1972 Meghalaya and Mizoram were separated out from it.
Geographical Facts about Assam
- The state shares maximum number of borders with other states of North East. It is surrounded by seven states : Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura, Mehalaya and West Bengal.
- Assam shares International Border with Bhutan, Burma and Bangladesh. Total international border length of Assam is 530 Km.
- Majuli the world’s biggest river island is in Assam on Brahmaputra river.
- The longest bridge of India Dhola-Sadiya Bridge is built on Lohit river which is an important tributary of mighty river Brahmaputra. The length of this bridge is 9.15 Km. This bridge connects Sadiya ghat on Assam side and Dhola ghat on Arunachal Pradesh side. This bridge was named after legendary Bhupen Hazarika who was born in Sadiya of Assam.
- Assam and the rest of sister states of north-east are connected to India by small strip of land in West Bengal called “Chicken’s neck” or Silliguri corridor.
- Kaziranga National Park is world famous for one horn rhinos and elephants. The National parks of Kaziranga and Manas has conserved pigmy hog, tiger, Asian elephant and various species of birds. Both of these parks are World Heritage sites. Apart from Kaziranga and Manas there are three more National Parks – i) Nameri National Park, Orang National Park and Dibru Saikhowa National Park.
- Assam is the land of highest biodiversity regions in the world which includes river based grasslands, bamboo forests, tropical rainforests, wetland ecosystems etc. The state is known for its greenery, Sal forests and products based on forests.
- Nameri National park located in valleys of eastern Himalayas is close to Tezpur city and lies in Sonitpur district. This park is located around Jia Bharali river and boasts of diverse flora and fauna. River rafting, Forest trekking are some of the activities conducted by Assam Tourism.
- One of interesting facts about Assam state is that it is known for highest population of wild buffalos in world. The state also boasts of highest number of species of birds. Around 820 species of birds and 190 species of mammals are found in Assam.
- One of rare facts about Assam is that it is remarkably rich in Orchid species. Kaziranga Biodiversity park consists of more than 500 of total 1314 species of Orchid found in India.
- The mighty river Brahmaputra is also popularly known as life line of Assam. At its largest extents the valley of Brahmaputra is about 100 km wide and 1000 Km long.
- Guwahati which is also called as the Gateway to North-east India is also one among the 100 fastest growing cities of the world. Guwahati is also the most populous city of Assam while Silchar is the second most in population.
Economic Facts about Assam
- If the economy is measured in terms of GDP per capita, then Assam stands at the fourth last position among all Indian states. Last, second last and third last states in terms of GDP per capita are Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Manipur respectively.
- This state holds a unique position in Production of Crude oil.
- It is the first state in country were crude oil was struck in 1889 at Digboi.
- Dispur is also famous for Guwahati Tea Auction Centre (GTAC). GTAC was established in 1970 and is one of the busiest tea trading centers of world.
- Assam contributes 15.6 % of World’s Tea Production and 55 % of India’s Production.
- Assam is the largest producer of golden color Muga Silk in whole world.
- Main Agricultural products of Assam – Rice, jute, tea, cotton, oilseeds, sugarcane, potato, orange, pineapple, banana, mango, jackfruit.
- Mineral Resources of Assam – Oil and Natural Gas, Coal, limestone
Social and Cultural Facts about Assam
- Literacy rate of Assam is 72.19 % which is below India’s average literacy rate of 74.04 %. Assam is at 19th position among all Indian states in terms of literacy.
- Hinduism is the main religion of state with about two third populations are Hindus. Islam is the second religion and about one third are Muslims in the state. As per 2011 census the Hindu population is 61.5 % while Muslims account for 34.2 %. There are 9 districts which are Muslim dominated.
- Kamakhya temple is located on Nilachal hill of Guwahati. It is an ancient and very famous hindu temple devoted to goddess Kamakhya (one of the incarnation of goddess Durga). Kamakhya temple is also among one of the total 51 Shakti Pithas.
- Bihu is the most common and popularly celebrated festival of Assam.
- Shivadol is a famous lord Shiva temple located in the Sivasagar district of Assam. It is located on the banks of Borpukhuri water tank (reservoir). There are two more shrines in the temple complex – Devidol and Vishnudol. Dol which means mandir or temple in Assamese language is believed to be tallest Shiva temple of India with a height of 104 feet.This temple was built by queen Swargdeo Siba Singha of Ahom kingdom in 1734. The structure is mounted with 7 feet large golden dome. It is one of most revered places of northeast and called pride of Assam.
- Bhupen Hazarika was prominent singer, lyricist and musician who is renowned not only in northeast but in entire India. He contributed his songs in many Assamese, Hindi and Bengali movies.He received many prestigious awards like National Film award (1975), Sangeet Natak Akademi award (1987), Padmashree (1987), Padmabhushan (2001), Dada Saheb Phalke award (1992) and Padma Vibhushan posthumously (2012).
- Bihu dance, Khel Gopal, Bagurumba and Tabal Chongli are the famous folk dances of Assam. Bihu festival is celebrated during three ocassions – during cropping, during harvest time and new year.
- Hajo is the pilgrimage center which is sacred to three religions – Buddhism, Hinduism and Islam.
- The state witnessed armed separatist groups namely United Liberation Front of Assam ULFA and National Democratic Front of Bodoland NDFB post 1970s.
- Akashi Ganga waterfalls is the popular tourist spot of this state. It is located in Nagaon district of Assam about 50 Km southeast of district headquarters. This fountain has got religious importance as well. There are many temples in the vicinity and people take holy dip in its waters during Magh Bihu.
Famous persons of Assam
- Seema Biswas – is the popular hindi film actress who got birth in Nalbari district of Assam. She gained popularity for the role of Phoolan Devi in film “Bandit Queen” in 1994. She also worked in Deepa Mehta’s “Water” in year 2000.
- Bhupen Hazarika – is the famous musician, singer, lyricist and film director who got birth in Sadiya of Assam in 1926.
- Prathmesh Barua – is a popular Film Director.
- Arnab Goswami – is the popular news journalist and anchor on channel Times Now. He was born in Guwahati.
- Hem Barua – was the famous poet who belonged to Tezpur of Assam. He won Lok Sabha seat from Guwahati in 1957 and 62.
- Somdev Devbarman is the popular Tennis player who got birth in Guwahati of Assam.
- Tarali Sharma – is the famous female playback singer.
- Zubeen Garg – is the famous assamese and hindi films playback singer.