This article is all about historical, geographical, social, religious, cultural, amazing, rare, unknown interesting facts about Jammu and Kashmir.
Quick Basic Facts about Jammu and Kashmir (J&K)
- Capital – Srinagar (Summer), Jammu(Winter)
- Official Language – Urdu
- Main spoken Languages – Kashmiri, Dogri,Gujri, Punjabi, Urdu, Balti, Dadri, Pahari and Ladakhi
- Area – 2,22,236 Sq Km
- Area Rank – 5th
- Population – 12.5 Million as per 2011 census
- Population Rank – 19th
- No of Districts – 22
- Sex Ratio – 889 females per 1000 male (as per 2011 census)
- Literacy Rate – 67.17 %
- Assembly and Council seats – 89+36 (Bicameral)
- Lok sabha seats – 6
- Rajya sabha seats – 4
- Date of Creation – 26 Oct, 1947
- First Chief Minister – Ghulam Md. Sadiq
- First Governor – Karan Singh
- Highest Peak – Mount K2 (Godwin Austen)
State Symbols of Jammu and Kashmir
- State Flower – Lotus
- State Tree – Chinar tree
- State Animal – Hangul (Kashmir Stag)
- State Bird – Black necked crane
Geographical Facts about Jammu and Kashmir
- J&K borders with 2 Indian states only – Himachal Pradesh in Southeast and Punjab in Southwest. Besides it shares international border with Pakistan in west, Afghanistan in north west (symbolic only), China in northeast. Line of control separates this state with Pak occupied kashmir.
- Length of international border shared with Pakistan is 1222 Km and that along China is 1954 Km. JK forms the longest international border length (3176 Km) among all Indian states lying on borders.
- This state has autonomy and special rights under article 370 of Indian Constitution. Jammu and Kashmir is the only Indian state which doesn’t follows Indian constitution as it has got its own constitution. This is the only state which has its own flag.
- (Read in details : Important Features of Article 370 of Indian Constitution)
- The region has remained a matter of territorial conflict between India and Pakistan.
- J&K state is home to several valleys including – Kashmir valley, Tawi valley, Chenab valley, poonch valley, Sindh valley and Lidder valley. Pir panjal range closes the main Kashmir valley from west and south and separates it from great planes of north India.
- Zozi La is the main important pass of state.
- Leh district which is spread in area of 45110 Sq Km in Laddakh region is largest district of Jammu and Kashmir in terms of area. Leh district is also the second largest district of India in terms of area. Leh district is bigger in area than 9 states Haryana, Kerala, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Tripura, Sikkim and Goa.
- Jammu district is biggest in state in terms of population.
- K2 (Mount Godwin Austen) is the highest peak of the state and India with altitude of 8,611 m. This peak is second highest in the world after mount Everest (8,648 m). This is located in Pak occupied Kashmir and virtually under control of Pakistan.
- Jhelum river is the only major river which flows through kashmir valley. Other major rivers flowing through the state are Indus, Chenab, Ravi and Tawi.
- It is home to several long glaciers- Siachen glacier being one which is 76 Km long making it longest Himalayan glacier.
- Gulmarg is a famous tourist destination of Jammu and Kashmir. It is known for its Gondola (Cable car) ride and skiing on slopes of Mount Apharwat. The original name of Gulmarg was Gaurimarg. It was renamed by Sultan Yusuf Shah in 16th century.
Historical Facts about Jammu and Kashmir
- After independence when all the states choose to accede with either India or Pakistan, then the King of J&K Raja Hari Singh decided to remain neutral. Soon after this, local tribesmen supported by Pakistani army infiltrated the state. Feared by this, Raja Hari singh signed the Instrument of Accession with India. After this Indian forces entered the state and fought first battle of 1947-48 to drive out the local tribesmen. Gradually the relationship between India and Pakistan worsened and 3 more battles were fought subsequently for control of this state – i) Indo-Pak War of 1965, ii) Indo-Pak war of 1971, iii) Kargil war of 1999.
- During the war of 1947-48, India under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru, took the matter of infiltration by Pakistan to United Nations (UN). UN passed a resolution that both the countries to withdraw their armies, after which a plebiscite to be held to acknowledge the mandate of people of Jammu and Kashmir.
- Since both countries failed to withdraw their army from Jammu and Kashmir, plebiscite was never held in the state. The other reason cited by India for not holding the plebiscite was forceful changed demographics of Pakistan occupied Kashmir.
- After the war of 1971, Simla agreement came to existence on 2 July 1972 and a line of control was defined which is still in existence till today. One important outcome of Simla agreement was that both India and Pakistan agreed that all the territorial disputes will be addressed by bilateral dialogue without interference of any third country or organisation.
- India has control over 60 % area of former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, Pak controls 30 % (Gilgit-Baltistan and POK), China controls 10 % area (Aksai Chin & Trans Karakoram tract). China occupied the Aksai Chin area after India’s defeat in Sino -Indian war of 1962. Pak offered the Trans Karakoram tract area to China in 1963.
Social and Cultural Facts about Jammu and Kashmir
- Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) is divided into three religious ethnic groups. The Jammu region has mostly Hindu population, Kashmir valley is dominant with Muslims while the Northern part of Ladakh has purely Buddhist and Tibetan culture.
- Dhumal and Rouff are traditional folk dances of Kashmir valley. Dhumal is dance form of men while Rouff is of women.
- Jammu and Kashmir is the only state in India in which a person belonging to other state can not purchase property in Jammu and Kashmir as per special provisions of Article 370.
- Chasme Shahi is a famous Mughal Garden built around a natural spring in Kashmir. The spring is known for its medicinal properties. It was built by Shah Jahan in 1632 who is also nick named as Mughal Architect. Shah Jahan gifted this to Dara Shikoh, his elder son.
- Dal Lake is considered as iconic symbol of Sri Nagar city. The famous Mughal Garden – Shalimar and Nishat Bag are built along the shore of Dal lake. This lake is practically frozen during winter months. This lake is famous for its houseboats. Shankaracharya Temple, Chasme Shahi, Nagin lake, Hari Parbat and Hazratbal Shrine are some places of interest surrounding the Dal lake.
- Mata Vaishno Devi is the popular religious destination which is located on Trikuta mountains. An estimated one crore pilgrims visit this shrine every year.
- Literacy rate of JK is 67.7 % which is well below India’s average literacy rate of 74.04 %. JK stands at 23rd position among Indian states in terms of literacy.
- Jammu and Kashmir is the only single state in India with muslim majority.
- Dogras, Gujjars and Gaddis are the important nomadic tribes of the state.
Economic Facts about Jammu and Kashmir
- Economy of Jammu and Kashmir is governed by mostly Agriculture and tourism.
- jammu and Udhampur are the main railway stations. The railway line has been extended to Srinagar and Qazigund-Banihal in Ramban district.
- Sericulture (silk worm farming) and Pisciculture(Fish Farming) is important economic aspect of the state.
- Main agricultural products for which Jammu and Kashmir is known are Saffron, Apple, Cherries, Almonds and Wall nuts.
- Main industries of Jammu & Kashmir are Handicraft, carpet, wood carving, Shawl making.
- Kashmir is famous for its “Pashmina Shawl” which is top exporting product.
- One of rare facts about Jammu and Kashmir is that this state is well known for manufacturing of Cricket bat (Cricket Willow).
- Mineral Resources of Jammu and Kashmir – Mica, fire clay, limestone, kaolin, bauxite.
Famous Persons from Jammu and Kashmir
- Alla Rakha Khan – the notable tabla player was born in Paghwal . He is the father of yet another tabla maestro Ustad Zakir Hussain.
- Pandit Shiv Kumar Sharma – is the eminent Santoor player born in Jammu. This is to note that Santoor is an indigenous musical instrument of Jammu and Kashmir.
- Jeevan – the famous bollywood actor who is known for his negative roles in old hindi films was born in Srinagar. His real name was Omkar Nath Dar.
- Vidhu Vinod Chopra – the eminent Director cum Producer of Bollywood film industry was born in Kashmir. He is well known for producing the mega blockbuster films like Muuna Bhai MBBS, 3 Idiots and PK.
- Kiran Kumar – the famous hindi films actor whose real name is Deepak Dar was born in Srinagar.
- Ghulam Rasool Santosh – is the important Kashmiri painter born in Srinagar.
- Shamma Jain – the Indian diplomat and ambassador to Panama (incumbent presently in NDA government) was born in Jammu.
- Some important politicians who belong to this state are – Sheikh Abdullah, Farooq Abdullah, Dr Karan Singh, Ghulam Nabi Azad, Omar Abdullah etc.