Highest Peaks of Mountain Ranges of India
This article is all about different Mountain ranges of India, Highest peaks of different mountain ranges of India, mountain peaks of different ranges of Himalayan as well as Deccan peninsula like Eastern ghats, western ghats, Satpura, Aravali, Vindhya ranges etc.
1. Mountain Ranges of India : Himalayan Range
The himalayas are the youngest mountains in the world. Of all the mountain ranges of India, Himalayas are the most prominent one. They form the nothern frontier of India extending from Jammu and Kashmir in West to Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Mizoram in east. The total length of the chain is about 5000 Km of which about 2500 km streches in the form of an arch. Himalayas comprise of almost parallel ranges. There are three ranges of Himalayas which runs parallel to each other. The first one is Great Himalayas(or Inner Himalayas), second one is called Middle Himalayas or Himachal and third range is called Sivalik or Sub Himalayas/Outer Himalayas. There is one more range north to the Great Himalayas which is called Trans Himalayas or Tibet Himalayas.
Great Himalayas/Inner Himalayas
Highest peak : Mount Everest (Sagarmatha)
This range is also called as Inner Himalayas. It is the northmost range which also contains the highest peaks of world. This range is the source of many Himalayan rivers. It is about 25 Km wide and the average height of the mountains is 6000 m. Mount Everest (or Sagarmatha in local language) which is the highest peak of the world(height 8848 m) comes in this range. The other important peaks of this range are Kanchenjunga (8598 m), Makalu (8481 m) and Dhailagiri (8172 m). Most of the rocks in this range are metamorphic.
Lesser Himalayas/Middle Himalayas/Himachal
This range is also called Mahabharat range in local nepali language. This mountain range comes to south of the Great Himalayas. Average height of the mountains is about 1800 m and the width varies from 80 to 100 Km. Himalayan rivers have cut deep gorges in this range.
Sub Himalayas/Outer Himalayas/Sivalik/Manak Parvat
This is the third range southmost to Great Himalayas and Sivalik. The range is considered to be swept between Potwar Basin in west and Teesta river basin in east. The length of this basin is about 2500 Km. This range is believed to present in western part only and the eastern part is considered to be eroded.
Minor ranges of Himalayan System
Hindu Kush Range
Highest Peak – Tirich Mir (7,708 m)
This is also known as Pariyatra Parvat as per Sanskrit roots. It is 800 Km long that starts from central Afghanistan up to Nothern Pakistan. The highest peak of this range is Tirich Mir (7690m) which comes in central district of Khyber Pakhtukhwa, Pakistan. This mountain range separates South Asia from Central Asia.
Highest peak : Mount K2 (Godwin Austen), (Height 8611 m )
This is also a minor range of himalayan system. It is situated across Pakistan, India and China located in the regions of Gilgit Baltistan (Pakistan), Laddakh (India) and Xianjiang (China). It is a subrange of Hindu Kush Mountain Range. This range has highest concentration of peaks above 8000 m mark. K2(8611 m) is the highest peak of this range and second highest in whole world. This is spread in a length of 500 km and contains most heavy glaciers only next to Polars. Siachen glacier which has a length of 76 Km and Biafo glacier (63 Km) belongs to this range and are second and third longest glaciers outside polar region.
Highest peak – Reo Purgyil (Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh) (Height – 6,816 m)
It is a mountain range in Jammu and Kashmir which separates Kargil district from Laddakh. The average height of Zaskar range is 6000 m. The highest peaks of Himachal Pradesh lies on Zanskar range. It separates Kinnaur district from Spiti in Himachal Pradesh.
Pir Panjal Range
Highest peak – Indrasan
It is the minor range of Inner Himalayas running from Pak occupied Kashmir to Jammu and Kasmir and then toward Himachal Pradesh. It runs from North west to South East direction. It forms a divide between rivers chenab at one side and Ravi at other side. The famous Galliat and Murree mountains lies on this range. The famous hill station Gulmarg of Kashmir comes in this range.
The meaning of this in local language is “to cut chicken”. These are the range of hills on India’s eastern border along with Myanmar. The peaks are not as high as Himalayan range. Three hill ranges come under Patkai – The Patkai-Bum hills, Gaaro-Khasi-Jaintia hills and Lushai Hills. Patkai-Bum falls in Yedbuk town, Arunachal Pradesh. Garo-Khasi-Jaintia hills are located in Meghalaya. World’s wettest place Mawsynram is located on this range near cherrapunji. Lushai range is in Mizoram and partially in Tripura.
2. Mountain Ranges of India : Western Ghats
Highest peak – Anamudi (Anamalai Hills Kerala)(Height 2695 m)
This range runs almost parallel to the western coast of Peninsular India. This range extends from Satpura range near Gujarat, swaps entire western Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka and parts of Tamilnadu and ends at Kanyakumari. The northern part of this range which comes in Maharashtra is known as Sahyadri range while the southern part of Kerala is called Sahya Parvatam. The Sahyadri range is known for famous hill stations like Matheran, Lonaval-Khandala and Mahabaleshwar. The total length of this Western ghats is about 1600 Km. The region of narrow coastal plain sandwiched between these range of mountains and Arabian sea is called Konkan. The western ghats blocks the southwest monsoon clouds causing heavy rains in the uphill region of this ghat. As a result the downhill regions of this mountain region specially the deccan plateau gets deprived of the rain. The average height of this range is about 1200 m. The highest peak of this range is Anamudi (in Kerala) comes on Anamali hills which is a part of Western ghats.
Western ghats are the source of major rivers of Peninsular India.
- Rivers flowing east towards Bay of Bengal are – Godavari, Tunbadhra, Krishna and Kaveri.
- Rivers flowing west towards Arabian sea are – Periyar, Bharatapuzha, Netravati, Sharavati, Zuari and Mandovi
The other important sub ranges of the Western Ghats are – Cardamom Hills, Anamalai Hills and Nilgiri Hills.
- Cardamom Hills These hills are a part of western ghats and is located in southeast Kerala and southwest Tamil Nadu. The name is derived from the cardamom spices which are cultivated on these hills along with pepper and coffee.
- Anamali Hills – These hills are also called Elephant Hills in local language. These hills are also a part of Western ghats and is located in Kerala and Tamil Nadu states. The highest peak of these range is Anamudi which comes in Idukki district of Kerala. This is also the highest peak in western ghat and in whole south India.
- Nilgiri Hills – These hills are also a part of main Western Ghats. It is located in between the states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. These hills are separated from famous Anamalai hills by famous Palakkad pass(Pal ghat). Moyar river forms the north boundary of Nilgiri hills and separates it from the Deccan plateau.
3. Mountain Ranges of India : Eastern Ghat
Highest peak – Arma Konda (in Andhra Pradesh) (Height 1680 m)
This range of mountains runs along the eastern coast of India starting from West Bengal in north, to Odisha, Andhra and till south in Tamil Nadu. This mountain range is also called Mahendra Parvat. It is not continuous series like Western ghats but are broken and discontinuous at various points. These ghats are eroded and are not of same height as western ghats. The flow of four major rivers of peninsular India has reduced the ghats gradually by passage of time. These rivers are – Godavari, Mahanadi, Krishna and Kaveri. The thin strip of land sandwiched between Eastern ghats and Bay of Bengal is called Coromandel coast. The highest peak of eastern ghat is Arma Konda (Sitamma Konda). It has a height of 1680 m and it is located in Andhra Pradesh state.
4. Mountain Ranges of India : Satpura Range
Highest peak – Dhupgarh (Height 1350 m)
This range starts from Gujarat running towards east through Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and goes up to Chhattisgarh. The range is parallel to Vindhya. These two ranges of Satpura and Vindhya divides the Indian subcontinent in two parts the northern part is called Indo Gangetic plane of north and Deccan plateau of Peninsular India. Most important rivers of Central and Peninsular India originates from this range. Narmada originates from north eastern end of Satpura and runs west towards Arabian sea. Tapti originates from central part of this range, crosses the range and flows towards west to Surat and meets Arabian sea. At the eastern end Satpura meets Chhota Nagpur plateau.
5. Mountain Ranges of India : Mahadeo Hills
These hills are located in northern part of central Satpura range. This comes in southern part of Madhya Pradesh state. These hills come south to the Satpura range. These hills have gentle north slope but steep southern slope. Narmada river flows in the valley of Mahadeo and Vindhya range.
6. Mountain Ranges of India : Vindhya Range
Highest peak – Sadbhavana Shikhar/Kalumar peak
Vindhya refers to discontinuous chain of hills and plateau in central part of India. The range originates from the state of Gujarat continuing into the east and north till the river Ganges in Mirzapur. These hills are of comparatively very low height as compared to others. It is also popularly known as Vindhyachal.
7. Mountain Ranges of India : Aravali Range
Highest Peak – Guru Shikhar, Mount Abu
Aravali range is the oldest of all mountain ranges of India and also of world. This range is hill system of northwest India which is swapped mostly in states of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Haryana and delhi. The series of peaks and ridges have generally height varying from 300 to 900 m. The length of the range is about 560 Km. This range terminates in Delhi where Raisina hills is marked as its last point. The height of this range has reduced due to erosion by air and water from millions of years.