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National, Official and Widely Spoken Languages of different Countries

This article describes about countries and their languages, most spoken languages of different countries, National Languages of different countries, Official languages of different countries, Definition of National language, difference between National and Official language of a country and other related terms.

We often come across two different terms National language and Official language. A common question arises what is National language actually and how it is different from Official language of a country ? We will try to make these terms clear and elaborate the differences between them.Widely Spoken Languages of different countries

What is National Language ?

National language is the primary or first spoken language of any country. This primary spoken language may be de facto or de jure. De facto means commonly accepted as a fact although there is no constitutional base. De jure here means that language is given the status of being National language by rule of law (by constitution or legislation). National language reflects the culture and heritage of a country. National language is often seen with a feeling of nationalism or patriotism. Like different national symbols (viz. National Anthem, National song etc.), the primary or most spoken language of a country is generally given the status of National language in many legislatures.

What is Official Language of a Country ?

Official language is the language designated by any country for working of its government. In other words, the language which is used by different government bodies to communicate each other (in terms of official documents) is called as official language. Here different government bodies may include parliament, judiciary, administration, state or province legislation etc. Official languages are generally de-jure in nature, which means that a language is granted official status in any country by a rule of law or by its legislation. The typical dictionary definition of Official Language is “the language that is approved by government of a country, taught in schools, and used in legal and official documents”.

Difference between National and Official Language

National language is a generally de-facto term while Official language is de-jure in nature. It means that National language is generally considered as the mode of expression of common people of a country and cannot be changed altered or modified by any law. On other hands Official language can be changed, altered or modified by a law. National language denotes the common mindset and psyche of a nation and is considered above the purview of a court of law. A remarkable difference between National and official language is that a National language can be given an official status but an official language cannot receive National status.

Languages of different Countries : Australia

  • National Language – English
  • Official language – not declared (de-facto English)

There is no declared Official or National language of Australia. Although English is considered as the de-facto Official language of the Australia. De-facto status means English is considered as a common fact to be official language but there is no such act of law supporting this. About 81 % of Australian population speaks English. Other spoken minority languages include Chinese 2.9%, Italian 1.2%, Arabic 1.1%, Greek 1%, Vietnamese 0.9% and Spanish 0.4%.

Languages of different Countries : China

  • Official language : Standard Chinese (Beijing dialect of Mandarin)
  • National language : Standard Chinese

There are innumerable groups of Chinese language out of which Mandarin is the most spoken with about 960 million speakers. Standard Chinese is the form of spoken Mandarin based on Beijing dialect. Standard Chinese is the official language of China (People’s Republic of China) and Taiwan (Republic of China). It is also one of the official languages of Singapore. Cantonese and English are official languages of Hong Kong (special administrative region of China). Cantonese and Portuguese jointly are the official languages of Macau(Special administrative region of China). Before 1924, National language of China was  國語 (Pinyin) which means National Language literally. But this form of Chinese has very few native speakers and was difficult to understand and learn. So 國語(Pinyin) was left out in 1924 and Beijing dialect of Mandarin (Standard Chinese) was given the status of National Language. The Peoples Republic of China renamed the National Language from 國語 to  普通话 (literally “Common Speech”).

Languages of different Countries : France

  • Official language : French
  • National language : French

Official language as per article 2 of French Constitution is French. All the government communication by law is done in French only. The government however, doesn’t enforces use of French by private individuals, media or corporations. There are a number of regional languages which are recognised by French government although they don’t have official status. Some of these regional languages are Alsatian, Catalan, Corsican, Breton, Gallo, Occitan etc.

Languages of different Countries : India

  • Official language: Hindi and English (with 20 other regional languages)
  • National language : not declared

The constitution of India recognizes Hindi written in Devanagari script and English as the Official language. There is no declared National language as such. Constitution of India also promulgates and authorizes the states to use their own official language. So, besides Hindi and English, there are 20 other official languages, making total number of officially recognized languages as 22. Besides Hindi and English, the other 20 official languages of India are – Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Dogri, Gujarati, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Maithili, Malyalam, Manipuri (Meithei), Marathi, Nepali, Odia, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Santali, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu and Urdu.

Languages of different Countries : Pakistan

  • Official language : Urdu and English
  • National language : Urdu

Urdu and English are both the official languages of Pakistan. Urdu alone serves as the sole National Language of Pakistan. In year 2015 government of Pakistan declared to make Urdu the only official language and to remove English. However the exact time frame was not declared when this will be done. There are some other prominently spoken regional languages in Pakistan like Punjabi, Pashto, Sindhi, Saraiki and Balochi. It is interesting to note that percentage of population speaking Urdu is only 7.59% (2008 census estimate) while that of Punjabi is 44.1%, Pashto is 15.4% and Sindhi is 14.1%.

Languages of different Countries : Japan

  • Official language : Japanese
  • National language : not declared

Japanese language is most commonly spoken language in Japan. There are a number of dialects of Japanese, with Tokyo dialect being the most popular and considered as standard Japanese. There is no declared national language of Japan.

Languages of different Countries : Russia

  • Official language : Russian
  • National language : not declared

Russian is the official language of Russia. Along with Russian, there are 27 more regional languages which have got the status of co-official language. As per article 68 of Russian constitution, various Republics (states) of Russia can establish any other regional language as their official language.

Languages of different Countries : U.S.

  • Official language : None at federal level
  • National language : English (de-facto)

English is the de-facto national language of United States. There is no declared official language in United States. De-facto national language status means English is considered to be National language as a common fact and not by a rule of law. English is the most commonly used language in US and about 80% (237 million) of the population speaks English as their primary language. Spanish is second most spoken language and 12.4% (40 million) of population speaks Spanish. Chinese (3.3 million) and French (1.3 million) are respectively at third and fourth place in number of speakers.

Official, National & Widely Spoken Languages of different Countries of Asia Oceania

CountriesOfficial LanguageNational LanguageWidely Spoken
AfghanistanPashto, DariDari (50%), Pashto (35%), Uzbek, Turkmen (11%), Others viz Balochi etc (4%)
BahrainArabicBahrani Arabic (Arabic dialect) is lingua franca, English, Persian, Urdu
BangladeshBanglaBanglaBangla (98%), Assamese, Bishnupriya Manipuri, Chakma, Hajong, Rohingya etc
BhutanDzongkhaDzongkha is predominant, Chocangaca, Lakha, Brokkat, Nepali, Bumthang, Dzala etc
BruneiStandard Malay, EnglishMalayBrunei Malay, Jawi Malay, Chinese (Hokkien, Cantonese, Hakka), English, Tamil
CambodiaKhmerKhmer is lingua franca, French
ChinaStandard Chinese (Mandarin) for mainland China; Cantonese, English for Hong Kong; Cantonese, Portuguese for MacauStandard Chinese (Mandarin)Standard Chinese (Putonghua/Guoyu/Huayu), Yue, Wu, Minbei, Minnan, Xiang
East TimorPortuguese, TetumTetum (36.6%), Mambai (12.5%), Makasai (9.7%), Tetum Terik (6%), Baikenu (5.9%), Kemak (5.9%) etc
FijiFijian, English, Fiji HindiFijian, English, Fiji Hindi
IndiaHindi, English with 20 other regional languagesNoneHindi (41%), Bengali (8.1%), Telugu (7.2%), Marathi (6.9%), Tamil (5.9%), Gujarati (4.5%), Kannada (3.7%), Malyalam & Odia (3.2%)
IndonesiaIndonesian Malay (Bahasa Indonesia)Indonesian Malay, Javanese, Sundanese, Madurese, Minangkabu, Musi, Manado, Bugis etc
IranPersianPersian (53%), Azerbaijani & Tukic dialects (18%), Kurdish (10%), Gilaki & Mazandarani (7%), Luri (6%), Arabic & Balochi 2% each
IraqStandard Arabic, KurdishMesopotamian Arabic, Kurdish (20%), Turkmen & Neo-Aramaic (5%)
IsraelModern Hebrew, ArabicHebrew (49%), Arabic (18%), Russian (15%), Yiddish (2%), French (2%), English (2%), Spanish (1.6%)
JordanStandard ArabicJordanian Arabic (Arabic dialect), English
KazakhstanKazakh, RussianKazakh, German, Russian, Tajiki, Tatar, Turkish, Ukranian, Uyghur
North KoreaMunhwaŏ (North Korean Standard Language)KoreanKorean
South KoreaKoreanKoreanKorean, English
KuwaitArabicKuwaiti Arabic (Arabic dialect), English
KyrgyzstanRussianKyrgyzKyrgyz (72.6%), Uzbek (14.4%), Russian (6.4%)
LaosLaoLao, Hmong, Khmu, French, English,
LebanonArabicLebanese Arabic, French (20%), English, Armenian (5%)
MalaysiaMalaysian (Bahasa Melayu)Malaysian (form of Malay language)Malaysian, Iban, Dusunic, Kadazan, English, Baba Malay, Kedah Malay, Kelantan Malay,Perak Malay, Southern Thai, Terengganu Malay
MaldivesMaldivian (Dhivehi)Maldivian (Dhivehi), English
MongoliaMongolianMongolian (95%), Turkic, Russian
MyanmarBurmeseBurmese, Shan, Lao, Karen, Kachin, Chin, Mon and English
NepalNepaliAwadhi, Bhojpuri, Gurung, Kiranti, Limbu, Magar, Maithili, Nepali, Rai, Sherpa, Tamang, TharuMaithili, Limbu, Newar, Tamang, Hindi, Sherpa, Bhojpuri
New ZealandEnglish, Māori, New Zealand Sign LanguageEnglish (96%), Māori (3.7%), Hindi (1.6%), Chinese (1.3%)
OmanArabicArabic, Balochi, Jibbali
PakistanUrdu, EnglishUrduPunjabi (44%), Pashto (15%), Sindhi (12%), Saraiki (11%), Urdu (8%), Balochi (3.6%)
PhilippinesFilipino (Tagalog), EnglishFilipinoTagalog, Cebuano, Bikol, Tausug, Ilocano, Hiligaynon, English, Spanish, Chinese (Hokkien, Cantonese and Mandarin)
QatarArabicQatari Arabic, English, Persian, Balochi, Hindi, Malyalam, Urdu, Pashto, Tamil, Telugu etc.
RussiaRussian (with 27 other regional languages)Russian (80%), English, Regional languages (Abaza, Altai, Bashkir, Buryat, Ingush etc) ; Migrant languages (Armenian, Azerbaijani, Kazakh, Uzbek, Kyrgyz)
Saudi ArabiaArabic3 main dialects of Arabic (Hejazi, Najdi, Gulf), Tagalog, Rohingya, Egyptian Arabic
SingaporeEnglish, Standard Chinese (Mandarin), Malay, TamilMalayEnglish (36.9%), Mandarin (34.9%), Other Chinese dialects (12.2%), Malay (10.7%), Tamil (3.3%), Others(2%)
Sri LankaSinhalese, TamilSinhalese (74.9%), Tamil (15%), English (7%), Sri Lankan Malay
SyriaArabicArabic dialects (Levantine, Mesopotamian), Kurdish
TajikistanTajikTajik (84.3%) and Tajik dialects (Rushani, Shughni, Ishkashimi, Wakhi ), Russian, Uzbek, Kyrgyz
ThailandThaiTai group (Lao Esan, Lao Thai etc), Austroasiatic(Kasong, Kuy etc), Sino Tibetan (Guong, Karen etc), Austronesian (Malay, Yawi etc), Homong-mien
TurkeyTurkishTurkish (84.5%), Kurmanji (12%), Arabic (1.3%), Zazaki (1%)
TurkmenistanTurkmenTurkmen (72%), Russian (12%), Uzbek (9%)
UAEArabicArabicArabic, Persian, English, Hindi/Urdu, Malyalam
UzbekistanUzbek (A Turkic form)Uzbek (85%), Russian (5.4%), Tajik (4%), Kazakh (3%), Kyrgyz (2%)
VietnamVietnamese (Tiếng Việt)VietnameseVietnamese (86.2%), Chinese Mandarin, Khmer, French, English
YemenArabicYemeni Arabic, Balochi, Mehri, Soqotri, Razihi, Hebrew, English

Official, National & Widely Spoken Languages of different Countries of Africa

CountriesOfficial LanguageNational LanguageWidely spoken
AlgeriaArabic, Berber (Tamazight)BerberAlgerian Arabic (72%), Berber (27.4%), Berber dialects (Kabyle, Chaouia, Chenoua etc)
AngolaPortugueseAll native languages about 14Portuguese (71%), Bantu (Umbundu)(23%), !Kung (Ju), Khoe
BeninFrenchFon, Fulfulde, Yoruba (all native languages about 50)French (35%), Fon (24%), Other native languages
BotswanaEnglishSetswanaSetswana (77.3%), Kalanga (7.4%), Kgalagadi(3.4%), Shona (2%), English (2.8%)
Burkina FasoFrenchMossi ( Mòoré), Dyula, FulfuldeMossi or Mòoré (40%), Fulfulde (8.3%), Dyula (4.4%), Gourmanché (5.5%), Bissa, Bwamu, Dagara, Samo
BurundiKirundi, FrenchKirundiKirundi (98%), Others (Swahili and French)
Cabo VerdePortugueseCape Verdean CreoleCape Verdean Creole
CameroonFrench, Emglish55 Afro-Asiatic, 2 Nilo Saharan, 173 Niger Congo languagesFrench (57%), English (25%)
Central African Rep.French, SanghoSanghoSangho (92%), Others (French, Bantu, Ubangian)
ChadFrench, Standard ArabicChadian Arabic and French, Niger Congo, Nilo Saharan, Afro-Asiatic languages etc
Comros  Shikomoro ,  French  and  ArabicShikomoro (Comorian) 97 %
D. R. CongoFrenchKituba, Lingala, Swahili, TshilubaFrench (47%), Kituba, Lingala, Mongo, Lunda, Kilega, Tetela,
Cote d'IvoireFrench70 native languages
DjiboutiFrench, ArabicSomali (59%), Afar (34.4%)
EgyptModern Standard ArabicEgyptian Arabic is lingua franca, English and French is also understood is business and educated circles
Equat. GuineaSpanish, French, PortugueseSpanishEquatoguinean Spanish (90%), Fang, Bube, Combe, Pidgin English etc
EritreaTigrinya, Arabic, EnglishTigrinya (50%), Tigre (20%), Arabic (20%), Afar (4%), Saho (3%),
EthiopiaOromo, AmharicOromo (33.8%), Amharic (29.3%), Somali (6.2%), Tigrinya ( 5.9%), Others (Afar, Gamo, Kafa, Sidamo, Gaurage etc)
GabonFrenchFang, Bantu languagesFrench (47 %), Fang (32%)
GambiaMandingoMandingo (38%), Fula (21.2%), Wolof/Serer (18%), Jola (4.5%)
GhanaEnglishEnglish, Gov. Sponsored like Twi, Ewe, Dagbani, Dangme, Ga etc
KenyaSwahili, EnglishSwahili is lingua franca, Kikuyu, Luhya, Luo and other many regional languages
LiberiaEnglishVernacular Liberian English Mande, Kru, Mel, Gola languages
LibyaModern Standard ArabicLibyan Arabic is most common, Egyptian & Tunisian Arabic, Berber, Domari, Tedaga etc
MadagascarMalagasy, FrenchMalagasyMalagasy is the Lingua Franca
MaliFrenchBambara, Malinke, Kassonke , 11 other native languagesBambara (80%), French (15%),
MauritaniaArabicBerber, Zenaga, Tamasheq, Hassaniyya Arabic
MauritiusEnglish, FrenchCreole (86%), Bhojpuri (5.3%), French (4.1%)
MoroccoStandard Arabic, Berber (Amazigh)Standard Arabic, Moroccan Arabic, BerberBerber (80%), Moroccan Arabic (Darija), French
MozambiquePortuguesePortuguese (50.4%), Swahili, Makhuwa, Sena, Nadu, Tsonga
NamibiaEnglishOshiwambo dialects (48%), Khoekhoe (11%), Afrikaans by 11%, Kwangali (10%), Herero (10%), English (1%)
NigerFrench with 9 other native languagesHausa (49.6%), Songhai (25.5%), Tamasheq (8.4%), Fulfulde (8.3%), Kanuri (4.8%), Arabic (1.2%), French spoken as 2nd language bu 20%
NigeriaEnglishHausa, Yoruba, Igbow, Ijaw, Edo, Fulfude,
RwandaFrench, English, SwahiliKinyarwandaKinyarwanda (99%)
SenegalFrenchBalanta-Ganja, Hassaniya Arabic, Jola-Fonyi and other native languages including WolofWolof (80%), French (15-20%)
SeychellesSeychellois Creole, English, FrenchSeychellois Creole (95%)
SomaliaSomali, ArabicSomali (76.9%), Arabic, English, Italian as minority language
South AfricaEnglish, Zulu, Xhosa, Afrikans and 7 other native languagesZulu (23%), Xhosa (16%), Afrikaans(14%), English (9.6%), Northern Sotho (9.1%), Tswana (8%), Sotho (7.6%)
South SudanEnglishBari, Dinka, Luo, Murle, Nuer, ZandeDinka, Nuer, Bari, Zande
SudanStandard Arabic, EnglishSudanese Arabic, Beja, Tigre, Fur, Nubian languages
SwazilandSwazi, EnglishSwaziSwazi (95%), English, Zulu, Tsonga
TanzaniaSwahili, EnglishBantu Swahili and English are lingua franca
TogoEwé, KabiyéEwé, Kabiyé, Mina, Fula
TunisiaModern Standard ArabicTunisian ArabicTunisian Arabic (Darija) (99%), Berber dialects, French
UgandaEnglish, SwahiliSwahili, Continua (Bantu dialect), Nkole, Tooro
ZambiaEnglishBemba (52%), Nyanja (37%), Lozi (11%), Tonga (15%), Kaonde, Luvale, Lunda
ZimbabweChewa, Chibarwe, English and 14 other native languagesShona (70%), IsiNdebele (20%)

Official, National & Widely Spoken Languages of European Countries

CountryOfficial LanguageNational LanguageWidely Spoken
AlbaniaAlbanianAlbaniaGreek (3%), Macedonian(0.17%)
AndorraCatalanSpanish, French, Galician, Portuguese
ArmeniaArmenianRussian, French, English, Yazidi
AustriaAustrian GermanAustro Bavarian, Alemannic, Serbian, Turkish, English, Slovene
AzerbaijanAzerbaijani TurkishAzerbaijani TurkishAzerbaijani Turkish (89%), Russian (3%), Armenian (2%), others
BelarusBelarusianBelarusian (85.6%), Russian (14.3%)
BelgiumDutch, French, GermanDutch (55%), French (36%), German (0.4%)
BulgariaBulgarianBulgarianBulgarian (84%), Turkish (10%), Romani (5%), Others (1%)
Bosnia & HerzegovinaBosnian, Croatian, SerbianBosnian (50%), Croatian(15.4%), Serbian (31%)
CroatiaCroatianCroatian (96%), Others 4%(Italian, Czech, Slovak)
CyprusStandard Greek, Standard TurkishCypriot Greek(81%), Cypriot Turkish (0.2%), English (4%), Roamnian (3%), Russian (2.5%), Bulgarian (2.2%), Arabic (1.1%), Others (5%)
Czech RepublicCzechCzech (96%), Others 4 %(Slovak, German, Polish, Romany)
DenmarkDanishFaroese, Greenlandic, English, German, Swedish
EstoniaEstonianVõro, Russian, Setu, English, German, Finnish
FinlandFinnish, Swedish and minority languages (Sami, Romani, Karelian and Finnish sign language)Finnish, SwedishFinnish (91%), Swedish (5.4%), Others 3.6%
FranceFrenchRegional languages as 2nd language after French are Alsatian (1.4%), Breton (0.6%), Occitan (1.3%) etc.
GeorgiaGeorgianGeorgian (71%), Russian (8.9%), Armenian (7%), Azerbaijani (7%) and others
GermanyGermanGerman (95%) and Others (Upper & Lower Sorbian, Romani, Danish, Frisian, English, French, Russian etc)
GreeceGreekGreek (99%) and others (Cretan, Cappadocian, Pontic, Maniot, Turkish, Romani, English)
HungaryHungarian Hungarian (98.9%), Others 1.1% (German, Romanian, English)
IcelandIcelandic Icelandic (93.2%), Polish (2.7%), Lithuanian (0.43%), English (0.32%), traces of German, Danish, Portuguese, Filipino, Thai, Latvian
IrelandIrish and EnglishIrishEnglish as 1st language (99%), Irish as 2nd language (36%)
Northern IrelandNone (English de facto)English is 1st language while Irish is the regional language
ItalyItalianStandard Italian, Italian dialects, monority languages (Catalan, German, Cimbrian, Croatian, French, Albanian, Slavik, Griko etc)
LatviaLatvianLatvian (58%), Russian (38%) and others
LiechtensteinGermanAlemannic (German dialect), Swiss German, Alsatian
LituaniaLithuanianLithuanian (96%), Others 4 % (Russian, Polish, English, German)
LuxembourgLuxembourgish, French, GermanLuxembourgishLuxembourgish (52%), French (16%), German (2%), Others (30%)
MacedoniaMacedonianMinority (6 Officially recognised minority languages (Albanian, Turkish, Romani, Serbian, Bosnian and Aromanian)
MaltaMaltese, EnglishMaltese (95%), Others (English, Italian, French)
MoldovaMoldovan (Romanian)MoldovanRomanian (76%), Russian (5.8%), Bulgarian (8.7%), Ukranian (7.7%), Gagauz (2.3%)
MonacoFrenchMonégasqueFrench (58%), Monégasque (21.6%), Italian (19%), English, Occitan
MontenegroMontenegrianRecognized minority languages are  Albanian ,  Bosnian , and  Croatian
NetherlandsDutchDutch (90%), Frisian (2.5%), English, Papiamento are Co-official, Dutch Low Saxon, Limburgish
NorwayNorwegianNorwegian (95%) including Bokmål (written form) ; Nynorsk & Høgnorsk (spoken form)
PolandPolishPolish (98%), Others (Silesian, Kashubian, English, German etc)
PortugalPortuguesePortuguese with different dialects (Souhtern, Mirandese, Central, Northern dialect)
RomaniaRomanianRomanian (90%), Others (Hungarian, English, Lithuanian, Bulgarian, Russian, Slovak etc)
San MarinoItalian, SammarineseSammarinese (Italian dialect) (83%)
SerbiaSerbianSerbian, Albanian, Hungarian, Romanian, Slovak
SlovakiaSlovakSlovak (84%), Hungarian (11%), Romany (2%), Ukranian (1%)
SloveniaSloveneSloveneSlovene (87.8%), Officialy recognised minority languages -Hungarian, Italian
SpainSpanish (Castilian)Spanish (99%), Regional Co-Official (Aranese, Basque, Catalan, Galician)
SwedenSwedisha number of Swedish Dialects (Westrobothnian, Dalecarlian, Jamtlandic etc)
SwitzerlandGerman, French, ItalianGerman, French, Italian, RomanshGerman (63 %), French (22.7%), Italian (8.4%), Romansh (0.6%)

Official, National & Widely Spoken Languages of American Countries

CountriesOfficial LanguageNational LanguageWidely Spoken
Antigua and BarbudaEnglishAntiguan Creole (89%), Spanish (10%)
ArgentinaSpanish (de-facto)Spanish (94.1%), Italian (3.45%), Levantine Arabic (2.3%), Others (Quechua, German, Yiddish, Gurani, Catalan, Mapudungun)
BahamasEnglishEnglishEnglish based Creole (Bahamian dialect) (74%), French based Creole (Haitian Creole) (25%)
BarbadosEnglishBajan (English Creole)
BelizeEnglishEnglish, Englisn Creole (62.9%), Spanish , German, Garifuna (2.9%), Q'eqchi' Maya (6%), Mopan Maya (3.6%) etc
BoliviaSpanish and 3 dozen native languagesSpanish, Aymara, Quechua, Chiquitano, Tupi Guaraní
BrazilPortuguese, Brazilian sign languagePortuguesePortuguese is lingua franca, Spanish, English, French
CanadaEnglish, FrenchEnglish (56.9%), French (21.3%), Other Native languages (Cree, Inuktitut, Ojibway, Innu, Dene Suline, Oji-Cree (Anishinini)
ChileSpanishSpanishChilean Spanish is lingua franca, Native languages (Mapudungun, Quechua, Rapa Nui
Costa RicaSpanishCosta Rican Spanish is predominant, local indigenous languages ( Maléku, Cabécar, Bribri, Guaymí, and Buglere)
ColombiaSpanishSpanish (92%), 65 Other native languages
CubaSpanishCuban Spanish is dominant, Haitian Creole , Lucumí(African dialect)
DominicaEnglishEnglish, Dominican Creole & Antillean Creole based on French, Kokoy (Cockoy) dialect
Dominican RepublicSpanishSpanish (98%), French (1.19%), English (0.57%),
EcuadorSpanish, Quechua, Shuar and other native languagesSpanish is predominant
El SalvadorSpanishSpanish, Caliche (Local Spanish vernacular), Nawat
GrenadaEnglishGrenadian English Creole and Grenadian French Creole
GuyanaEnglishGuyanese Creole (English based with African and East Indian effect)
GuatemalaSpanishSpanish (93%), Mayan Languages in rural areas (K’iche’, Q'eqchi', Kaqchikel, Mam, Poqomchi, Tz’utujil, Achí, Q’anjob’al etc)
HaitiFrench, Haitian CreoleFrench (42%), Haitian Creole (French based)
HondurasSpanishSpanish, Garifuna, Mískito (Misumalpan), Mayangna (Misumalpan), Pech/Paya, (Chibchan)
JamaicaJamaican Std. EnglishJamaican Patois Jamaican Patois (Patwa) English based Creole (90%), English
MexicoNoneSpanish (de-facto)Spanish is predominant, indegenous languages like (Nahuatl, Yucatec Maya, Mixtec ,Zapotec, Tzeltal Maya, Tzotzil Maya, Otomí, Totonac, Mazatec )
NicaraguaSpanishSpanish (Nicañol or Nicaraguan Spanish) by 90%, English, Indigenous languages (Miskito, Sumo, and Rama)
PanamaSpanishSpanish (93%), English (8%), French (4%), Arabic (1%), Native languages (Ngäbere etc)
ParaguaySpanish, GuaraniSpanish (87%), Indigenous languages (Guarani (90%), Aché, Ayoreo, Chamacoco, Iyo'wujwa Chorote, Guana, Lengua, Maka, Nivaclé, Ñandeva)
PeruSpanishSpanish (80.3%), Quechua (16.5%), Aymara (2.3%)
Saint Kitts and NevisEnglishEnglish, Saint Kitts Creole
Saint LuciaEnglishSaint Lucian French Creole (Patois or Patwa) by 95%
SurinameDutchDutch (60%), Sranan (English Creole) is lingua franca, Surinamese Hindi (Bhojpuri dialect), Javanese
Trinidad and TobagoEnglishTrinidadian Creole and Tobagonian Creole, Hindustani (Bhojpuri dialect), French Creole (Patois), Spanish
UruguaySpanishUruguayan Spanish, Spanish & Italian Creole (Cocoliche), English
USANoneEnglish (de-facto)English (80%), Spanish (12.4%), Chinese, French
VenezuelaSpanishSpanish is lingua franca, Chinese, Portuguese, Italian, Native languages (Wayuu, Warao etc)