National Symbols of India, National Animal, Bird, Song, Tree, Game
National symbols are those signs or artifacts which are used to represent culture, customs and and identity of any country. National symbols used to play important role in creating patriotism and awakening in the times of freedom struggle. Popular National Symbols are enlisted as follows –
National Symbols of India
|National Emblem||Lion Capital of Ashoka at Sarnath|
|National Anthem||Jan Gana Mana written by Ravindra Nath Tagore|
|National Song||Vande Mataram written by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee|
|National Language||None (Hindi and English are Official Languages, not National Language)
|National Animal||Tiger (Land), River Dolphin (Aquatic)|
|National Game||Not Declared (Hockey is not national game as per recent RTI)|
National Symbols of India : National Emblem
National Emblem is the first and most common national symbol of India. National Emblem is an adaptation from Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka. The original pillar contains four lions standing back to back. It is mounted on a bell shaped lotus, carved out of a single block of sandstone, carrying sculptures of an elephant, galloping horse, a bull and a lion separated by by intervening wheels of Law (Dharm Chakra). The words “Satyameva Jayte” (Meaning – Truth Alone Triumphs) are inscribed below the base plate of Emblem in Devnagri script. These words are taken from “Mundaka Upanishad“. This lion capital pillar was designed by Samrat Ashoka during 242 – 232 BC in respect of Mahatma Buddha.
This was adopted as National Emblem on 26 Jan 1950 by government of India. The bell shaped lotus flower at the bottom was omitted in the adopted Emblem. In the state adopted Emblem only three lions are visible, the fourth being hidden from view. The wheel appears in center with a bull on right and horse on left. The lion is a symbol of majesty and disciplined strength, bull of steadfastness and hardwork, and the horse of energy, loyalty and speed.
National Symbols of India : National Anthem
- The song Jana Gana Mana was composed by Ravindra Nath Tagore.
- It was adopted as National Anthem on 24 Jan 1950 by Constituent Assembly.
- It was first sung on 27 Dec 1911 at the Calcutta Session of Indian National Congress.
- Playing time of the anthem is approx 52 seconds.
- The song was first published in Jan 1912 under the title “Bharat Vidhata” in Tatva Bodhini Patrika edited by Ravindra Nath himself.
The lyrics of the song is as follows – Jana-gana-mana-adhinayak jay he, bharat bhagya vidhata, Punjab Sindhu, Gujarat Maratha, Dravid Utkal Banga, Vindhya Himachal Yamuna Ganga Uchal Jaladhi Taranga, Tava Subha name jage, Tava subha ashish mange, Gahe tava jay gatha, Jan gan mangal dayak, jay he Bharat bhagya vidhata Jay he, jay he, jay he Jay jay jay, jay he.
Original English version of Tagore’s lyrics is – Thou art the ruler of the minds of all people, Dispenser of India’s destiny, Thy names rouses the hearts of the Punjab, Sindh, Gujarat and Maratha, of the Dravid, Orissa and Bengal. It echoes in the hills of Vindhyas and Himalayas, mingles in the music of Jamuna and Ganga and is chanted by the waves of Indian Sea. They prey for the blessings and sing thy praise. The salvation of all people waits in thy hand, Thou dispenser of India’s destiny, Victory, victory, victory to thee.
National Symbols of India : National Song
- The song “Vande Mataram” composed by Bankim Chandra Chatterji was adopted as National Song on 24 Jan 1950 by Constituent Assembly.
- This has equal status with National Anthem.
- It was first sung at the 1896 Session of Indian National Congress.
- This song was published in Bankim Chandra Chatteji’s novel “Anand Math” in 1882.
The lyrics of this song is – Vande Matram, Sujalam, suphalam, malyaja shitalam, Shasyashyamalam, Mataram ! Shubhrajyotsna drumadal shobhinim, Suhasinim sumadhura bhashinim, Sukdam vardam, Mataram !
National Symbols of India : National Calendar
- Government adopted the Saka Era as the system for National Calendar with Chaitra as its first month and Pahalgun the last from 22 March 1957.
- The days of Saka Calendar have a permanent correspondence with the dates of Gregorian Calendar – Chaitra Day 1 falling on March 22nd of Gregorian Calendar in a normal year and on March 21st in a Leap year.
- The starting date (Date of Adoption) ie 22 March 1957 corresponds to Chaitra 1, 1879 of the commencement of Saka.
- Months of National Saka Calendar are – 1) Chaitra (30/31 Days), 2) Vaishaka (31 D), 3) Jaishtha (31 D), 4) Ashadha (31 D), 5) Shravan (31 D), 6) Bhadra (31 D), 7) Ashvina (30 D), 8) Kartika (30 D), 9) Margashisha (30 D), 10) Pausha (30 D), 11) Magha (30D), 12) Falguna (30 D)
National Symbols of India : National Animal
- Out of the Eight races of species known, the Indian race “Royal Bengal Tiger” is found throughout the country except in North West region. It is also found in Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh.
- To check the reducing population of Tigers in India Project “Tiger was launched” in 1973. 27 Tiger reserves have been established so far in India under this project.
- Lion was the National Animal in India till 1972, after that it was replaced by Tiger.
- River Dolphin is the National Aquatic animal of India. It is mostly found in Ganga river. It is critically endangered species. Due to its depleting population, it has been put in Schedule 1 of Wildlife Protection Act, 1972. Poaching, siltation and river pollution are the main reasons of its depletion.
National Symbols of India : National Bird
- The indian peacock , whose scientific name is Pavo Cristatus is the National Bird of India.
- It is fully protected under the Indian Wildlife Protection Act, 1972
- There is no any declared National Language of India though HIndi along with English are used as Official Languages.
- Presently there is nothing on record which suggests or any order issued which indicates that Hindi is the National Language as per recent High Court order of Gujarat.
- Though we have been assuming that Hockey is the Nation game of India which has fetched us 6 consecutive Olympic gold medals, but the fact is there is no declared National Game of India.
- In a reply to recent RTI, Sports Ministry has made it clear that it has not any declared National Game.
- India Fig tree (Banyan tree), (Scientific name – Ficus Bengalensis) is the National Tree of India. It is also called as Vat Vriksha, Bargad or Barh. Its branches root themselves like new trees over large area. The root then give rise to more truncks and branches. Because of its this characteristic it is considered immortal and it is integral part of myths and legends of India.
- Banyan tree is of great religious importance as per Hindu beliefs. There are a number of traditional festivals which are associated with this tree.
- Lotus is National Flower of India. Lotus flower is considered very pious and has various descriptions in ancient mythological and religious texts.
- Its scientific name is Nelumbo nucifera.
- Mango whose scientific name is Mangifera Indica is the national fruit of India.
- This fruit originated in India and India is the largest producer of Mangoes.
- Ganga which is also the longest river of India is the National River of India.
- Description of Ganga is available in religious texts and is considered very holy as per Hindu beliefs.
- It originates from snowfields of Gangotri glacier in Himalayas as Bhagirathi river. It is later joined by other rivers such as Alaknanda, Yamuna, Son, Gomti, Kosi and Ghagra.