Powers of Indian President
Powers of Indian President can be explained under following points –
Executive Powers of Indian President
President is the executive head of the state and all executive actions of the Union Government are taken in his name. All important officials of Union Government are appointed by the President. Some important officials appointed by the President include :-
- Prime Minister of India,
- Members of Council of ministers,
- Chief Justice and judges of Supreme Court and High Courts,
- Chairman and members of Union Public Service Commission (UPSC)
- Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG)
- Attorney General of India
- Governors of States
- Members of Finance Commission
- Ambassadors to Foreign countries
Legislative Powers of Indian President
As an integral part of the Parliament, President enjoys important legislative powers. He can summon and prorogue the sessions of the two houses and can dissolve the Lok Sabha.
- He can address both the houses separately or jointly. He addresses the first session of Parliament after the general election.
- He nominates 12 members to Rajya Sabha from the fields of Fine Arts, Literature, Science, Social Service etc.
- He nominates two members from Anglo Indian community to Lok Sabha if according to his jurisdiction the community has not received sufficient representation.
- All the bills passed by the parliament must receive his consent before they become law.
- The President can ask the parliament to review a bill a bill if he is not satisfied with it.
- If upon the review the Parliament resends the bill, then he has to approve it.
- In other words he enjoys only suspension (not termination) veto powers and it can be applied only to non-money bills. However with the constitutional amendments he has lost his veto power too and it is obligatory for him to give assent to such bills.
- The President can enact laws through ordinances when the parliament is in recess. These ordinances posses the power of law but must be approved by parliament within six weeks of its re-assembly.
Financial Powers of Indian President
- All money bills can originate in the Parliament only on the recommendation of President.
- The contingency fund of India has been placed at the disposal of President. He can advance money out of this fund to meet unforeseen expenses and recover the same after due authorisation by parliament.
- The President appoints finance commission every five years to recommend distribution of taxes between Union and state government.
Judicial Powers of Indian President
- President can accord pardon, reprieve, respite or remit the punishment or commute the sentence of any person punished by the court of law.
- President of India enjoys legal immunity and is not accountable to any court of law for anything done in the exercise of his official duties.
Diplomatic Powers of Indian President
- The President represents the country in international forums. He sends ambassadors to foreign countries and receives their diplomats.
- All international treaties and agreements are concluded on behalf of the President. However these treaties and agreements are subject to rectification by the Parliament.
Military Powers of Indian President
- As the Supreme Commander of Indian Armed Forces, President appoints chiefs of Army, Navy and Air Force.
- President has also the power to declare war and conclude peace.
Emergency Powers of Indian President
- The Constitution of India confers extraordinary powers to President to deal with three types of emergencies :- i) Emergency due to external aggression or internal revolt ii) Emergency arising out of failure of constitutional machinery in the state, and iii) Emergency arising from threat of financial stability or credit of country.
- During exercising emergency powers President can suspend Fundamental Rights.